Liking: People like those like them, who like them.
- At Tupperware parties, guests’ fondness for their host influences purchase decisions twice as much as regard for the products.
- To influence people, win friends, through: Similarity: Create early bonds with new peers, bosses, and direct reports by informally discovering common interests – you’ll establish goodwill and trustworthiness. Praise: Charm and disarm. Make positive remarks about others – you’ll generate more willing compliance.
Reciprocity: People repay in kind.
- When the Disabled American Veterans enclosed free personalized address labels in donation-request envelopes, response rate doubled.
- Give what you want to receive. Lend a staff member to a colleague who needs help; you’ll get his help later.
Social Proof: People follow the lead of similar others.
- More New York City residents tried returning a lost wallet after learning that other New Yorkers had tried.
- Use peer power to influence horizontally, not vertically; e.g., ask an esteemed “old timer” to support your new initiative if other veterans resist.
Consistency: People fulfil written, public, and voluntary commitments.
- 92% of residents of an apartment complex who signed a petition supporting a new recreation center later donated money to the cause.
- Make others’ commitments active, public, and voluntary. If you supervise an employee who should submit reports on time, get that understanding in writing (a memo); make the commitment public (note colleagues’ agreement with the memo); and link the commitment to the employee’s values (the impact of timely reports on team spirit).
Authority: People defer to experts who provide shortcuts to decisions requiring specialized information.
- A single New York Times expert-opinion news story aired on TV generates a 4% shift in U.S. public opinion.
- Don’t assume your expertise is self-evident. Instead, establish your expertise before doing business with new colleagues or partners; e.g., in conversations before an important meeting, describe how you solved a problem similar to the one on the agenda.
Scarcity: People value what’s scarce.
- Wholesale beef buyers’ orders jumped 600% when they alone received information on a possible beef shortage.
- Use exclusive information to persuade. Influence and rivet key players’ attention by saying, for example:“…Just got this information today. It won’t be distributed until next week.”